Signal level calculations based on 2D and 3D models

As the results of researches are showing, the best solution of this problem is usage of digital models containing the building heights i.e. 3D models.
During mobile communications network design phase it is necessary to optimize the location of base stations in the service zones. The location which provides required signal level in any point of service zone with minimum quantity of base stations – is considered to be optimal. The simplest solution of this task is the case when earth surface can be approximated by plane. In urban build-up areas the task of signal quality definition in the receive point is more complicated, because there are many reflected signals which should be taken into account.

Example of signal level calculation around the base station using 2D model of Astana

Initial data for calculation is the terrain model and clutter model with included signal attenuation factor for each clutter type. The heights of buildings and other obstacles aren’t being taken into account.

Example of signal level calculation around the base station using 3D model of Astana

For calculations in the propagation model with 3D model, all possible effects which appear because of the multiradiate propagation, wave refraction and diffraction are being taken into account. This allows making more accurate modeling of wave propagation in the urban area. Initial data for 3D calculations are the terrain model and heights of buildings and other obstacles.

Multiradiate signal changes in the direction off the base station depending on obstacles heights.

Clutter model of Astana city + Buildings and obstacles heights model

Signal level calculation with taking into account the building types and obstacles heights